A. Statement of Purpose
The Rutgers School of Public Health Honor Code sets forth general principles of integrity as well as expectations for behavior consistent with ethical study. All students who enroll with the Rutgers School of Public Health will be expected to abide by the Honor Code throughout their course of study. Violations of the Honor Code are a matter of grave concern and may be punishable with sanctions as severe as suspension or dismissal.
B. Code of Professional Conduct
Enrollment at the Rutgers School of Public Health is a privilege and not a right. All students enrolled in the School are expected to behave in a professional manner as they pursue their courses, certificates, and degrees. As an institution dedicated to improving the health of diverse populations, the School expects students to treat all people with respect, regardless of their race, color, creed, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, physical or mental disability, military status or marital status. The School reserves the right to require withdrawal of any student whenever necessary to maintain standards of scholarship or professional conduct.
C. Honor Code
Each student bears a fundamental responsibility for maintaining academic integrity and intellectual honesty in his or her graduate work. For example, all students are expected to observe the generally accepted principles of scholarly work, to submit their own rather than another’s work, to refrain from falsifying data, and to refrain from receiving and/or giving aid on examinations or other assigned work requiring independent effort. In submitting written material, the writer takes full responsibility for the work as a whole and implies that, except as properly noted by use of quotation marks, footnotes, etc., both the ideas and the works used are his or her own. In addition to maintaining personal academic integrity, each student is expected to contribute to the academic integrity of the school community by not facilitating inappropriate use of her/his own work by others and by reporting acts of academic dishonesty by others to an appropriate school authority. It should be clearly understood that plagiarism, cheating, or other forms of academic dishonesty will not be tolerated and can lead to sanctions up to and including separation from the Rutgers School of Public Health.
D. Violations of Academic Integrity: Definitions
Some ways in which academic honesty can be violated are discussed below. The comments and examples within each section provide explanations and illustrative material, but do not necessarily exhaust the scope of these violations.
- Stealing: Stealing is defined here as taking something without right or permission, usually in a surreptitious way, e.g., to take another student’s personal belongings, or to take equipment from a University building for personal use.
- Facilitating Academic Dishonesty: Students who knowingly or negligently allow their work to be used by other students or who otherwise aid others in academic dishonesty are violating the principle of academic honesty as much as the student who receives the material, even though they may not themselves benefit academically from that dishonesty.
- Fabrication: Fabrication is the falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise. “Invented” information may not be used in any laboratory experiment or other academic exercise without authorization from the instructor. It is improper, for example, to analyze one sample in an experiment and covertly “invent” data based on that single experiment for several more required analysis. The student must also acknowledge reliance upon the actual source from which cited information was obtained. A writer should not, for example, reproduce a quotation from a book review and indicate that the quotation was obtained from the book itself.
- Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the representation of the works or ideas of another as one’s own in any academic exercise. To avoid plagiarism, every direct quotation must be identified by quotation marks or by appropriate indentation and must be promptly cited in the text or in a footnote. Acknowledgement is required when material from another source stored in print, electronic, or other medium is paraphrased or summarized in whole or in part in one’s own words. To acknowledge a paraphrase properly, one might state: “to paraphrase Plato’s comment...” and conclude with a footnote identifying the exact reference. A footnote acknowledging only a direct quoted statement does not suffice to notify the reader of any preceding or succeeding paraphrased material. Information that is common knowledge, such as names of leaders of prominent nations, basic scientific laws, etc., need not be footnoted; however, all facts or information obtained in reading or research that are not common knowledge among students in the course must be acknowledged. In addition to materials specifically cited in the text, only materials that contribute to one’s general understanding of the subject may be acknowledged in the bibliography. Plagiarism can, in some cases, be a subtle issue. Any questions about what constitutes plagiarism should be discussed with the faculty member.
- Denying Others Access to Information or Material: It is a violation of academic integrity to deny others access to scholarly resources or to deliberately impede the progress of another student or scholar. Examples of offenses of this type include: giving other students false or misleading information; making library material unavailable to others by stealing or defacing books or journals or by deliberately misplacing or destroying reserve materials; or altering computer files that belong to another.
- Cheating: Cheating is the use of inappropriate and unacknowledged materials, information, or study aids in any academic exercise. The use of books, notes, calculators, and conversation with others is restricted or forbidden in certain academic exercises. Their use in these cases constitutes cheating. Similarly, students must not request others (including commercial term paper companies) to conduct research or prepare any work for them, nor may they submit identical work or portions thereof for credit or honors more than once without prior approval of the instructor.